電腦輔助語言教學

Computer Assisted Language Learning and Teaching

Instructor: Chi-Fen Emily Chen  陳其芬

Department of English

National Kaohsiung First University of Science and Technology, Taiwan


Course Introduction

課程簡介

Course Contents

課程內容

Interactive Exercises

互動練習

Online Dictionaries

線上字典

Web Resources

網路資源

Student Blogs

學生網誌

Student Projects

學生作品

Discussion Forum

線上討論區

 

Unit 8.  Using Technology to Teach Writing Skills

   Please read

Butler-Pascoe, M. E. & Wiburg, K. M. (2003). Technology and teaching English language learners. Chapter 5, pp. 137-159.

 

8.1   The Role of Writing in SLA

8.2   Approaches to Teaching Writing and the Use of Computers

8.2.1   Form-focused Approach

8.2.2   Process-focused Approach

8.2.3   Content-based Approach

8.2.4   Reader/audience-dominated Approach

8.3   Bringing it All Together: Reading, Writing, Listening, and Speaking

 

8.1  The Role of Writing in SLA

  1. It has long been recognized that reading and writing are integrally linked and in fact share many of the same cognitive and social processes.

- Readers and writers are both active participants in interpreting and constructing meaning from text.

- Reading and writing both emphasize the importance of schemata in mind about the content and form of text.

- Reading and writing are both complicated, interactive, and recursive processes.

  1. The four different roles of writing in SLA :

Raimes (1991) identified four different focuses in second language writing that emerged at different times and continue to have an impact on today's writing instruction: focus on form, focus on the writer, focus on the content, and focus on the reader.

Focus on Form

 Focus on the Writer

(& the Writing Process)

 Focus on the Content

 Focus on the Reader

1960s -1970s

1970s

1980s

1980s

- Writing was viewed as a means of reinforcing speech patterns (1960s). Writing instruction focused on sentence-level linguistic forms.

- Writing was viewed as a product affected by L1 cultural thought patterns & rhetorical forms (1970s).

 

- Writing was viewed as a process of constructing personal meaning.

- Student expression was viewed as more important than linguistic correctness.

- Writing included a series of cognitive activities, such as brainstorming, drafting, peer- reviewing, and revising.

- Writing was viewed as an important academic skill.

- Developing writing skills for academic purposes was more emphasized.

- Attention was given to the content and the academic expectations placed on students.

- Writing was viewed as a text understood by the reader.

- Writers need to know who the reader is and how to meet the reader's expectation when they write.

- Content and rhetoric form (i.e. discourse structure) used in academic writing are both emphasized.

 

* Discussion Questions:

  1. Among the four roles of writing, which one(s) do you think more important for beginners and which one(s) more important for advanced learners? Why? Please explain your reasons.

  2. Recall your own writing learning experiences in English. Which role(s) of writing do you think your writing teachers gave more attention to? Please give examples. Do you think all of your writing teachers used the same teaching approaches? Which one(s) do you like better? Why?

 



8.2   Approaches to Teaching Writing and the Use of Computers

According to the different focuses in second language writing, there are four major approaches to L2 writing instruction:

- Form-focused Approach

- Process-focused Approach

- Content-based Approach

- Reader/audience-dominated Approach

Good writing instruction draws on each approach in varying degrees and attends to the interaction among these different focuses.
 

8.2.1  Form-focused Approach

In the 1960s, L2 writing instruction focused on sentence-level linguistic forms. By the 1970s, writing instruction moved beyond the sentence level to controlled discourse in the form of sentence combining and controlled compositions. This was also a time when attention was directed toward rhetorical forms and rhetorical organizational patterns. The emphasis of this approach is on accuracy.

Form-focused instruction includes two types: 1) grammar-based instruction and 2) discourse structure-based instruction.

  1. Grammar-based instruction is found in different types of programs ranging from simple drill and practice activities that feature a few points of grammar to comprehensive interactive software that cover major grammatical structures from beginning to advanced levels.

Many comprehensive interactive programs provide activities integrated with other language skills. The use of an integrated approach attempts to address the long-standing concern that students learning grammar in isolation of other skills were unable to transfer that grammatical knowledge to their actual language use in real-life situations.

 

Website Examples:

ESL Blues

Guide to Grammar and Writing

Grammar Safari

-  Purdue University's OWL (Online Writing Lab):

   a) Grammar/Writing Resources, Handouts and Exercises for ESL Students

   b) Grammar, Punctuation, and Spelling

CD-ROM Example:

英文寫作魔法師-基本句型篇 (試用版下載)
 

  1. Discourse structure-based instruction includes practices in recognizing and using basic elements of well-written essays, such as introductory and concluding paragraphs, topic sentences, supporting details, and transitions. Attention is given to the organizational patterns and forms of different types of written text, such as expository, descriptive, and narrative.

Website Examples:

- Writing Den (The site is designed to assist students to write creatively. Online examples assist students in their abilities to write sentences, paragraphs, and even essays)

-  Purdue University's OWL (Online Writing Lab):

   a) General Writing Concerns (Planning/Writing/Revising/Genres)

   b) Professional Writing Handouts and Resources

The University of Victoria Writer's Guide

University of Richmond Writer's Web 

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign - Writer's Workshop: Tips and Techniques

 

8.2.2   Process-focused Approach

  1. Process-focused instruction, which was largely a reaction against form-dominated instruction, emphasizes learned-centered tasks in which students assume greater control over what they write, how they write it, and the evaluation of their own writing.

  2. Teachers allow time for pre-writing activities, including brainstorming and bridging to students' background knowledge (i.e. schemata). Students are encouraged to write  multiple drafts, communicate with authentic audience, share feedback with peers, revise and edit their writing, and then publish their writing. Content and student expression are viewed as more important than linguistic correctness.

  3. Technology enhances this approach in terms of providing both collaborative writing opportunities and individualized skill development using computer-based programs. Butler-Pascoe and Wiburg (2003) made a list showing how technology supports different stages of the writing process:

The Writing Process Stages

Individual Skill Development

Collaborative Group Learning Activities

1. Prewriting activities

- Prompted writing

- Brainstorming programs

- Outlining programs

- Research

- Accessing Web database

- Brainstorming

- List making

- Electronic bibliography writers

2. Writing the draft

- Composing with the word processor

- Collaborative web-based writing projects

3. Responding

- Individual teacher-student conferencing

- Networked peer response groups

- Electronic prompted peer review

4. Revising and editing

- Word processing

- Thesaurus programs

- Spelling and grammar checkers

- Incorporating peer suggestions

5. Evaluating

- Teacher-student interaction assessing skills and assigning software

- Self-correct

- Class critique of student writing using an LCD panel

6. Developing skills

- Use assigned grammar software

- Web-based writing labs and grammar software

- Small group use of prompted writing and grammar software

 

7. Showcasing or publishing work

- Display final copy of student writing

- Desktop publishing

- Web publishing

- Desktop publishing group products such as school magazines, newspapers, brochures, web pages, and other publications

 

* Discussion Questions:

  1. Based on your writing learning experiences, please give examples to illustrate what learning activities your writing teacher(s) designed for each writing process stage. Did s/he used computers or any writing programs (e.g. "My Access" - an online writing development tool) to facilitate your learning of writing? If yes, how? Did you like the computer-assisted learning activities s/he use in the writing class? Why or why not?

 

8.2.3   Content-based Approach

  1. The content-based approach, which was largely a reaction to the process-focused approach's excessive attention to the writer's making of personal meaning, emphasizes the content of the writing and the academic expectations placed on students. This approach particularly benefits college-level L2 students for developing writing skills for academic purposes.

  2. This approach also uses literature as a model for good writing because literature serves as rich content for language development and reflects the culture of the target language.

  3. Content-based instruction can draw on subject matter software to enhance language skills and develop content knowledge. Pascoe and Wiburg (2003) point out four characteristics that good content-based learning programs need to have:

  1. Incorporate some combination of audio, video, and graphics to support comprehension.

  2. Stimulate critical thinking through problem-solving tasks.

  3. Use easily identifiable icons for easy navigation of the program.

  4. Are not heavily dependent on text.

  1. The World Wide Web offers numerous resources for authentic content materials and lesson plans.

 Examples:

- Websites of world news agencies and magazines:

CNN News, BBC News, World Headlines, World Press Review, Newsweek, Time Online,

National Geographic Magazine, Reader's Digest, Weekly Reader(designed for students)

- Online encyclopedias:

Bartleby.com: Great Books Online (including encyclopedias, dictionaries, quotations, English usage, biographies, literary works, and many other reference books)

Infoplease (including almanacs, atlas, a dictionary, and an encyclopedia)

Encyclopedia Britannica (offering news, links, and access to abbreviated encyclopedia entries)

Encyclopedia.com (offering over 17,000 short articles from the Concise Columbia Encyclopedia, 3rd edition)

Wikipedia (an open content, community-built encyclopedia with thousands of articles on various topics)

MSN Encarta: Online Encyclopedia, Columbia Encyclopedia Informationsphere,

Canadian Encyclopedia, Encyclopedia Smithsonian, Yahoo! Reference

- 國立高雄第一科技大學線上資料庫 (NKFUST LIC Databases; ID & PW required)

  Grolier Online 葛羅里百科全書線上資料庫, World Almanacs 世界年鑑,

  Encyclopedia Britannica 大英百科全書資料庫, 大英簡明百科全書中文版,

  MLA International Bibliography 當代全球語言文學資料庫

- Online literature libraries (e-texts):

Online Library of Literature, The Literature Network, Open Directory: Literature,

American and English Literature Online Books, Literary Encyclopedia,

Online Children's Stories, Classis Bookshelf, Great Books, Literature Collection

- Online lesson plans:

Please see examples in Web Resources (IV): English Teaching Resources

1) Online lesson plans for ESL/EFL

2) Online lesson plans for all grade levels and all subjects

 

8.2.4  Reader/audience-dominated Approach

  1. Th Reader/audience-dominated approach, paralleling and complimenting the content-based approach, gives greater attention to the reader and reader expectations in the academic community. The reader is not just an individual, but the larger academic discourse community into which the writer will become socialized.

  2. In this approach, teachers typically develop theme-based lessons that practice various rhetorical forms and discourse structures and assist students in the development of academic writing skills in various essay genres such as compare and contrast, giving instructions, case/problem analysis, persuasion, and cause and effect. Form and content are both emphasized.

Examples of learning rhetorical forms and discourse structures:

- Please see website examples in the above discourse structure-based instruction

  1. The computer technology allows students to access to an academic audience that is worldwide. Computer-mediated communication (CMC), such as online discussion forums and email exchange projects, makes it possible for students to engage in the target language of a common discipline as they discuss issues in their field of interest.

Examples of online learning English discussion forums:

- Dave's ESL Cafe:

  1) Student Discussion Forums, and 2) Teacher Discussion Forums

- Englishforums.com

- EnglishClub.com ESL Forums

- ESLgo.com's ESL message boards

- BBC Learning English - Communicate

Examples of email exchange projects :

- Please see examples in Web Resources (III): CMC Activities and Projects
 

* Please read

a) "Discussion Forum" from Flexible Education. It provides the possible uses of a discussion forum, its strengths and limitations, and tips for use.

b) "The Impact of Electronic Communication on Writing" by Abdullah, from ERIC Digest. This digest summarizes some insights gained from research on writing behavior and performance affected by electronic communication.
 

* Discussion Questions:

  1. Though many educators have advocated the use of computers in the writing class to facilitate L2 students' writing development, the research shows that the effectiveness of using computers in teaching writing is not yet conclusive. As an advanced English learner, what advantages and disadvantages do you see in a computer-assisted writing class using the four different approaches mentioned above?

* Please do Exercise 8  Using Technology to Teach Writing Skills

 


8.3   Bringing it All Together: Reading, Writing, Listening, and Speaking

  1. Pascoe and Wiburg's (2003) model of computer-based English language learning:

  1. Although we look at how computers assist L2 learners in their learning of four separate language skills, it is important to combine the reading, writing, listening, and speaking components into one holistic approach to the development of language. 

* Discussion Questions:

  1. Now you have read many language learning theories and principles and you have seen how computers can be used in various ways to enhance language learning of four skills. Based on your learning experience, in which language skill(s) do you think computers can offer the most support for students to learn a second language? Or, do you think computers should be used in the class where the four language skills are equally emphasized and well integrated? Please explain your reasons.

 

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