電腦輔助語言教學

Computer Assisted Language Learning and Teaching

Instructor: Chi-Fen Emily Chen  陳其芬

Department of English

National Kaohsiung First University of Science and Technology, Taiwan


Course Introduction

課程簡介

Course Contents

課程內容

Interactive Exercises

互動練習

Online Dictionaries

線上字典

Web Resources

網路資源

Student Blogs

學生網誌

Student Projects

學生作品

Discussion Forum

線上討論區

 

Unit 6.  Using Technology to Teach Speaking and Pronunciation Skills

   Please read

Butler-Pascoe, M. E. & Wiburg, K. M. (2003). Technology and teaching English language learners. Chapter 4, pp. 96-111.

 

6.1   The Role of Speaking in SLA

6.2   Approaches to the Teaching of Speaking Skills

6.3   The Role of Pronunciation in SLA

6.4   Approaches to Pronunciation Instruction

6.5   The Use of Computers in Teaching Speaking and Pronunciation Skills

 

6.1  The Role of Speaking in SLA (second language acquisition)

  1. Speaking is viewed in the larger context of communication with the focus on the speaker's ability to 1) take in messages, 2) negotiate meaning, and 3) produce comprehensible output. This view recognizes the interactive nature of listening and the crucial role of negotiating meaning in order to produce comprehensible speech. 

  2. The importance of comprehensible output:

Swain (1985) argued for the importance of comprehensible output that requires the learners to negotiate meaning and formulate and test hypotheses about the structures and functions of the language they produce.

In this way, when non-native speakers receive feedback from their interlocutors that their message is not clear, they revise their speech to clarify their meaning. Through this process of adjusting their language output in order to make their messages more comprehensible to native speakers, language learners improve the accuracy of their language production.

  1. Types of oral interactions:

Bygate's model of oral interactions (1987):

Bygate's information and interaction routines (1987) correspond respectively to the transactional and interactional functions of language proposed by Brown and Yule (1983) (see Unit 5 - Listening Purposes).

* Discussion Questions:

  1. Can you identify the differences of language use in the two types of oral interactions? For example, you may find people use different tones, styles, and terms/words for information and interaction routines. Can you give examples to illustrate your points?

  2. Based on your foreign language learning experience, which type of oral interactions is more difficult to learn and why? How do you think the use of technology can help you improve your oral communication skills in the target language? Please give specific reasons and examples.


 

6.2   Approaches to the Teaching of Speaking Skills

Teachers need to draw on more than one approach and use a variety of instructional tools, such as audiotapes, videos, and multimedia computer technology, to meet different students' needs in teaching speaking skills.

  •  For the beginning levels of instruction: audio-lingual method (ALM), total physical response (TPR), the natural approach, the silent way, and suggestopedia.

  •  For the more advanced levels of instruction: communicative language teaching (CLT) and the task-based approach.

Note:  Please find the explanation of the various teaching approaches in the Overview of Treatment of Speaking in Second Language Teaching Methods.

 


 

6.3   The Role of Pronunciation in SLA

A historical view of the role of pronunciation in SLA:

  1940s - 1960s

  1970s - 1980s

  late 1980s - present

- the teaching of pronunciation was greatly stressed

 

- behavioristic audio- lingual methods; used imitation drills, pattern practice, and dialog memorization

- the teaching of pronunciation was largely ignored

 

- communicative approaches; focused more on fluency than  form

- pronunciation was a key ingredient to the development of communicative competence

- a more balanced approach that valued both accuracy and fluency

 


 

6.4   Approaches to Pronunciation Instruction

  1. Intuitive-imitative approach

The learner listens to and imitates the sound and rhythms of the target language without the assistance of explicit instruction. Technologies, such as audiotapes, videos, and computer-based programs and websites, can offer rich resources of native speech as good models.

  1. Analytic-linguistic approach

The learner is provided with explicit, structured teaching of speech features utilizing articulatory descriptions and charts of speech apparatus, phonetic alphabet and vowel charts, and a variety of interactive speech analysis software and websites.

  1. Current integrative approach

- Pronunciation is viewed as an integral component of communication, rather than an isolated drill and practice sub-skill

- Pronunciation is practiced within meaningful task-based activities

- Use pronunciation-focused listening activities to facilitate the learning of pronunciation

- There is more focus on the suprasegmentals of stress, rhythm, and intonation as practiced in extended discourse beyond the phoneme and word level.

- Pronunciation is taught to meet the learners' particular needs

- A dual-focus oral communication program (Morely, 1994):

  1. The micro level instruction is focused on linguistic (i.e., phonetic-phonological) competence through practice of segmentals and the suprasegmentals.

  2. The macro level attends to more global elements of communicability with the goal of developing discourse, sociolinguingisc, and strategic competence by using the language for communicative purposes.

- Goals of pronunciation instruction: The primary goals of pronunciation teaching are for the learner to develop intelligible speech and to be able to effectively communicate in the target language (Miller, 2000).

  Morely (1991) identified four basic pronunciation goals that are realistic aspirations:

  1. Functional intelligibility

  2. Functional communicability

  3. Increased self-confidence

  4. Speech monitoring ability and speech modification strategies

* Discussion Questions:

  1. Do you think pronunciation is important in learning a second/foreign language?

  2. Based on your learning experience, which pronunciation goal or goals do you think is/are more difficult to achieve? How do you think the use of technology can help you achieve your pronunciation goal(s)? Please give specific reasons and examples.


 

6.5   The Use of Computers in Teaching Speaking and Pronunciation Skills

  1. Purpose of using computers:

We use the computer technology to create an environment that encourages communication and provides increased and more varied communicative opportunities for students to utilize their oral skills.

  1. In teaching speaking skills:

  1. The Computer used as a Tutor (human-to-machine interaction)

Examples:  My English Tutor 我的口說英語家教(CD-ROM 試用版下載)

 TriplePlay Plus (CD ROM)

  1. The Computer used as an Instructional Tool (human-to-human interaction via the computer in the classroom)

Examples:  Focus English: Everyday English in Conversation

Conversation Questions for the ESL & EFL Classroom

  1. The Computer used as a Communication Medium (human-to-human interaction via the computer outside the classroom) - using MOOs (Multi-user domains, Object Oriented) and Chat Rooms (or IRC - Internet Rely Chat) for "live" real-time communication (i.e. synchronous communication)

Examples:  schMOOze University

ESL Cafe's Chat Central

ESL Chat Room in EnglishClub.com

Chat Room in Englishbaby.com

VLC Chat Rooms (Hong Kong)

  1. In teaching pronunciation skills:

Computer-based activities/programs of pronunciation instruction include the following

  1. Articulatory charts

  2. Sample words utilizing the targeted sound

  3. Minimal pairs/comparison words

  4. Listening discrimination of minimal pairs within a sentence

  5. Sample sentences with several words utilizing the targeted sound

  6. Dictations

  7. Cloze exercises

  8. Suprasegmental exercises (including intonation, rhythm, stress, and timing)

Examples:  American English Pronunciation Practice

Sounds of English

English Pronunciation at EnglishClub.com

Phonetics: English Sound Library (University of Iowa)

English Pronunciation/Listening (Okanagan University College, Canada)

* Please do Exercise 6  Using Technology to Teach Speaking and Pronunciation Skills

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