電腦輔助語言教學

Computer Assisted Language Learning and Teaching

Instructor: Chi-Fen Emily Chen  陳其芬

Department of English

National Kaohsiung First University of Science and Technology, Taiwan


Course Introduction

課程簡介

Course Contents

課程內容

Interactive Exercises

互動練習

Online Dictionaries

線上字典

Web Resources

網路資源

Student Blogs

學生網誌

Student Projects

學生作品

Discussion Forum

線上討論區

 

Unit 5.  Using Technology to Teach Listening Skills

   Please read

Butler-Pascoe, M. E. & Wiburg, K. M. (2003). Technology and teaching English language learners. Chapter 4, pp. 81-96.

 

5.1   The Role of Listening in SLA

The Comprehension Approach

Krashen's Monitor Model

5.2   Approaches to the Teaching of Listening Skills

5.2.1  The Natural Approach

5.2.2  The Total Physical Response (TPR)

5.3   Listening Processes

5.4   Listening Purposes

 

5.1  The Role of Listening in SLA (second language acquisition)

  1. Listening was first recognized as a major component of language learning and teaching in the late 1970s. At that time, research suggested that language instruction should focus on the learner's listening comprehension in the early stages of acquisition, while delaying oral production until the learner was more familiar with the new language.

  2. This school of thought manifested itself in the form of the comprehension approach which proposed the following:

  1. Comprehension abilities precede productive skills in language learning.

  2. The teaching of speaking should be delayed until comprehension skills are established.

  3. Skills acquired through listening transfer to other skills.

  4. Teaching should emphasize meaning rather than form.

  5. Teaching should minimize learner stress.

  1. The comprehension approach was supported by Krashen's Monitor Model of second language acquisition. This model consists of five hypotheses:

  1. Acquisition-learning hypothesis (Acquisition is subconscious, whereas learning is consciously developed by instruction and aided by error correction).

  2. Monitor hypothesis (Conscious learning is limited to use as a monitor that can edit and make corrections in the learner's output before s/he writes or speakes, but language fluency relies on acquisition).

  3. Natural order hypothesis (Learners acquire linguistic structures in a predictable order in L1 and a similar order is present in L2 acquisition).

  4. Input hypothesis (Learners acquire language by exposure to comprehensible input: "i +1". Learning is first focused on meaning and structure is learned as a consequence of understanding the message).

  5. Affective filter hypothesis (Depending on the learnerís state of mind, the affective filter limits what is noticed and what is acquired. The presence of an affective filter could act as a mental block if a poor affective state existed)


 

5.2   Approaches to the Teaching of Listening Skills


Two approaches to the teaching of listening skills, the natural approach and the total physical response (TPR), are supported by Krashen's Monitor Model of SLA and grouped within the broader comprehension approach umbrella.

5.2.1  The Natural Approach

The natural approach, developed by Krashen and Terrell (1983), focuses on comprehensible input and the optimum affective state of the learner.

  1. Principles and Pedagogical Implications (i.e., application to classroom practices):

Principles

Pedagogical implications

  1. Comprehension precedes productions. That is, listening and reading skills will be acquired before speaking and writing skills.

  1. Teachers speak in the target language only.

  2. Content is selected according to its relevance to student interests.

  3. Teachers consistently provide comprehensible input.

  1. Language production emerges from nonverbal responses, single words,  combinations of two or three words, to phrases, sentences, and ultimately to complex discourse.

  1. The "silent period" is allowed; students are never forced to speak before they are comfortable doing so.

  2. Error correction is given only when errors interfere with communication.

  1. The syllabus and course content is organized around topics with communicative goals rather than linguistic structures.

  1. The teaching focus is on communicating ideas with little or no attention to grammatical accuracy in the early comprehension and production stages.

  1. The learning environment must be conducive to language learning.

  1. Activities should ensure that students can practice the language in a supportive, nonthreatening setting that reduces anxiety, promotes motivation, and builds self-esteem.

 

* Discussion Questions:

  1. Is it really good for L2 learners to delay their oral production?

  2. Does the natural approach attend to learners' output? Can comprehensible input alone lead to learners' comprehensible output?

  1. The Use of Computers in Teaching Listening Skills with the Natural Approach:

Comprehensible Input

Low-anxiety Learning Environment

  1. Computers allow teachers to add multisensory elements, text, sound, pictures, video, and animation, which provide meaningful contexts to facilitate comprehension.

  2. Computers allow learners to hear the available input as many times as needed until they feel they understand it.

Examples:

- Interactive Audio-Picture English Lessons

- Adult Learning Activities - California Distance Learning Project  (news stories and Interactive exercises)

- British Council - Learn English: Songs and Lyrics

  1. Multimedia programs can be designed to present material at different difficulty levels with adjustments in speed of delivery according to individual learner needs.

Examples:

- Randall's ESL Cyber Listening Lab

- John's ESL Community - Listening Activities

  1. Computers allow learners to develop their autonomy to review and practice materials as many times as they wish.

  2. Computers can provide immediate, nonjudgmental feedback and additional assistance to learners. They correct learners' errors without giving them embarrassment or anxiety.

 

* Discussion Questions:

  1. According to your language learning experience with computers, do you think those CALL programs always provide comprehensible input, particularly in listening?

  2. Do you think the feedback from the computer is sufficient for language learners to develop their listening skills ?

5.2.2  Total Physical Response (TPR)

Total physical response, developed by Asher (1977), is frequently used as a technique within a variety of teaching approaches and methods rather than strictly as an approach unto itself. It focuses on psychomotor associations and lowering of the affective filter.

  1. Principles and Pedagogical Implications:

Principles

Pedagogical implications

  1. Listening comprehension skills are developed before oral production skills (based on the natural order of L1 acquisition).

  1. Teachers speak in the target language to students and focus on students' listening comprehension in the early stage.

  1. Psychomotor association: Learning is enhanced through the association of language with motor activity. Motor activity is a function of the right-brain, and the right-brain activities should precede the language processing functions of the left-brain.

  1. Teachers give command forms (i.e. "Open the door") to which students respond by physically doing the action.

  1. TPR lowers students' affective filter and stress level.

  1. Teachers ask students to listen only but not to give an oral response.

 

  1. The Use of Computers in Teaching Listening Skills with the TPR:

 Examples:

- TPR Games (program description from TPR World Website)

- Live Action English Interactive (program description and demo)

- Review of Live Action Spanish Interactive (from Language Learning and Technology, Vol. 8, No. 3, September 2004, pp. 40-43)

* Discussion Questions:

  1. TPR is usually used in the face-to-face classroom. Is there anything missing when TPR is used on a computer?

  2. Please read the program descriptions of "Live Action English Interactive" and "Live Action Spanish Interactive" and a review of the Spanish one. Both programs use the principles of TPR to design for beginning and intermediate adult learners. However, TPR is usually used to teach languages to younger learners. Do you think "TPR-on-a-computer" is good for adults to learn languages? Why or why not?


 

5.3   Listening Processes

Two types of processes, bottom-up and top-down, have been identified as central to listening comprehension.

  1. Principles of Bottom-up and Top-down Processing:

Bottom-up Processing

Top-down Processing

  1. It focuses on individual linguistic components of discourse.

  1. Comprehension is viewed as a process of decoding messages proceeding from phonemes to words, to phrases and clauses and other grammatical elements, to sentences.

  1. It focuses on macro-features of discourse such as the speaker's purpose and the discourse topic.

  2. Comprehension is viewed as a process of activating the listener's background information and schemata* (i.e. prior  knowledge about the context and the topic) for a global understanding of the message.

* Note:  "Schemata" is defined as "plans about the overall structure of events and the relationships between them" that are stored in the listener's long-term memory (Richards, 1990). These schemata relate to our real-world experiences and how we expect people to behave and events to occur.

  1. Bottom-up Activities and Top-down Activities in Teaching Listening Skills:

Bottom-up Activities

Top-down Activities

  1. Identify sounds or lexical items according to their linguistic function.

  2. Use phonological cues to distinguish between positive and negative sentences or statements and questions.

  3. These activities are designed to help learners develop their phonological, lexical, and grammatical knowledge.

  4. These activities are often used for learning phonics and pronunciation practice.

Examples:

American English Pronunciation Practice

-  Emily's Pronunciation Class

 

  1. Identify the speaker's communicative purpose or the main idea of discourse.

  2. Use schemata to infer the contextual information from the heard speech or conversation.

  3. These activities are designed to help learners develop their pragmatic and discourse knowledge.

  4. These activities are often used for improving communicative skills focusing on meaning rather than form.

Examples:

- Randall's ESL Cyber Listening Lab

- John's ESL Community - Listening Activities

* Discussion Question:

  1. Based on your English (or other foreign language) learning experience, what type of listening processes do you use more often, bottom-up or top-down? In your opinion, what type of knowledge can CALL programs better help learners to develop, linguistic or background knowledge? Why? Please give examples.


 

5.4   Listening Purposes

  1. Interactional Purposes and Transactional Purposes:

According to Brown and Yule (1983), language communicative functions can be divided into two types: interactional and transactional functions. Both language functions are needed for effective classroom participation.  Students use interactional language to socially interact with each other and their teacher and engage in transactional uses to develop new skills and construct new knowledge.

 

Interactional Purposes

Transactional Purposes

  1. The focus is on harmonious communication in social contexts.

  2. Interactional uses of language typically include greetings and small talk that center on noncontroversial topics that elicit agreement among the participants.

  3. Interactional uses of language do not require careful attention to details and facts.

  1. The focus is on conveying information and language use is message oriented.

  2. Transactional uses of language include listening to lectures, taking notes, and practicing dictations and cloze exercises that require understanding of details.

  3. Transactional language is explicit, clear, and coherent in order for the listener to comprehend the meaning of the message.

 

  1. The Use of Computers in Teaching Listening Skills for Two Types of Purposes:

Teaching for Interactional Purposes

Teaching for Transactional Purposes

Example:

- Learning Oral English Online

This website offers interactional speaking practice through dialogs centered on topics such as making friends, going to a party, and dating. Students can practice different aspects of social conversation. This site also practices another type of interactional listening that focuses on simple service-oriented tasks such as ordering lunch and shopping in America.

 

Examples:

- Randall's ESL Cyber Listening Lab - Listening Quizzes for Academic Purposes

- BBC Learning English: Watch and Listen - Welcome to London

- Adult Learning Activities - California Distance Learning Project

These websites provide transactional language practice and are designed to focus on getting information and promote English development for academic purposes.
 

 

* Discussion Questions:

  1. In everyday language use, we often carry out both interactional and transactional functions of language at the same time. Can you always distinguish which language function you are using? If it is difficult to distinguish them, then why do we have to learn these two functions separately?

  2. In your opinion, which language function do you think CALL programs can better help students to learn? Why? Please give examples.

* Please do Exercise 5  Using Technology to Teach Listening Skills

 

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