電腦輔助語言教學

Computer Assisted Language Learning and Teaching

Instructor: Chi-Fen Emily Chen  陳其芬

Department of English

National Kaohsiung First University of Science and Technology, Taiwan


Course Introduction

課程簡介

Course Contents

課程內容

Interactive Exercises

互動練習

Online Dictionaries

線上字典

Web Resources

網路資源

Student Blogs

學生網誌

Student Projects

學生作品

Discussion Forum

線上討論區

 

Unit 12.   Rethinking CALL

   Please read

  1. Bax, S. (2003). CALL – past, present and future. System, 31, 13-28. Available: http://www.iateflcompsig.org.uk/media/callpresentpastandfuture.pdf

  2. Shetzer, H. & Warschauer, M. (2000). A electronic literacy approach to network-based language teaching. In M. Warschauer & R. Kern (Eds.), Network-based language teaching: Concepts and practice. New York: Cambridge.

 

  •   Why do we need to rethink what we know?

- We need to think critically.
- We need to make wise decisions.

  •   Main Issues

1) Is the computer a must in language learning and teaching?
2) What is computer assisted language learning (CALL)?
3) What can teachers and learners do in using computers for language learning?
4) What knowledge or competence do language teachers need for CALL?

  •   Issue 1: Is the computer a must in language learning and teaching?

Two fallacies (Bax, 2003)

1) "Omnipotence" fallacy

Computers can do everything and should replace current learning and teaching technologies.

2) "Sole Agent" fallacy

The key or only factor in successful implementation of the technology is the technology itself.

  •   What Computers Can and Can’t Do

  •   Factors affecting CALL:

Teacher, Learner, Context

Objective, Material, Activity

1

How to use the computer

  •   How is the computer used?

Computer Roles

Tutor
(behaviorist)
Tool
(cognitive)
Medium
(sociocognitive)

CALL Contexts

One-computer classroom

Network computer lab

Self-access learning center

Distance learning

  •   Conclusion for Issue 1

- No, the computer is not a must, but it will become “normalized” in everyday practice, like a pen or a book (Bax,2003).

- Computer technology has to be treated as an aid, but not a panacea.

- The effectiveness of CALL cannot reside in the computer technology itself but in how it is put to use and for what purposes.

 

  •   Issue 2: What is computer assisted language learning (CALL)?

Definition:

- This term (Computer-assisted language learning - CALL) is widely used to refer to the area of technology and second language teaching and learning despite the fact that revisions for the term are suggested regularly (Chapelle, 2001, p. 3).

- Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) may be defined as the search for and study of applications of the computer in language teaching and learning (Levy, 1997, p.1).

- Given the breadth of what may go on in computer-assisted language learning (CALL), a definition of CALL that accommodates its changing nature is any process in which a learner uses a computer and, as a result, improves his or her language (Beatty, 2003, p. 7).

  •   Types of CALL programs/materials:

- CALL-specific software (CD-ROMs)

- Generic software (e.g., word-processors - Word, presentation software - PowerPoint, and spreadsheet - Excel).

- Web-based learning materials

- Computer-mediated communication (CMC) programs (synchronous: online chat; asynchronous: email and discussion forum)

  •   Types of CALL activities:

- multiple-choice & true/false quizzes
- gap-filling exercise/cloze
- matching
- re-ordering/sequencing
- crossword puzzles
- games and simulations
- writing & word-processing
- concordancing 
- web quests/searching
- web publishing
- Computer-mediated communication (synchronous and asynchronous)

  •   Early CALL vs. Modern CALL

  •   Issue 3: What can teachers and learners do in using computers for language learning?

CALL – Listening Skills

- Randall's ESL Cyber Listening Lab

- Adult Learning Activities - California Distance Learning Project

- BBC Learning English: Watch and Listen

- Voice of America - Special English

CALL – Speaking Skills

- My English Tutor

- English Pronunciation (Okanagan University College, Canada)

- Conversation Questions for the ESL & EFL Classroom

- Top 100 American speeches in the 20th century

- Reader’s theater (an example: “Many Moons”)

CALL – Reading Skills
- Learn to Read at Starfall

- Phonics and Word Study

- Vocabulary for K-12 and ESL Kids

- ESL games in EnglishClub.com

- Mother Goose Rebus Rhymes

- SurLaLune Fairy Tales

- The Online Books Page (University of Pennsylvania)

- English reading from EnlgishClub.com

- Repeat after Us - Online Library and Language Lab

- The Gold Scales of Tales, Poems and Wisdom

CALL – Writing Skills

- ABC Letters, Writing, Words, Numbers, Shapes, & Colors

- ESL Blues

- Advice on Academic Writing (University of Toronto)

- Purdue University's OWL (Online Writing Lab):

a) Grammar/Writing Resources, Handouts and Exercises for ESL Students

b) Grammar, Punctuation, and Spelling


Web-Quests - Thinking Skills

A WebQuest usually includes the following elements:
- An introduction or scenario
- A task that is meaningful and doable
- A process for completing the task
- Information resources to support the task
- A conclusion that brings closure and evaluation

WebQuests facilitate cooperative learning, offer different kinds of resources, and provide a variety of ways to access and demonstrate knowledge.

- Dr. Alice Christie's Matrix of 320 WebQuests

- WebQuest Resource Bank (香港中文大學探索網站資源庫)

Concordancing
A concordancer is a computer program that allows users to search a collection of authentic texts (i.e. a corpus) for multiple examples of selected words or phrases.
Users can use a concordancer to find examples of authentic usage to demonstrate word collocations, word usage, or even the structure of a text.
Examples:
- 國立清華大學 CANDLE Project - TOTALrecall, VN Collocation (TANGO), and Collocation Checker
- 淡江大學 Collocation Explorer
- VLC's Web Concordancer 香港理工大學
- Google

CMC Activities

Synchronous

- ESL Cafe's Chat Central

- Chat Room in Englishbaby.com

- VLC Chat Rooms (Hong Kong)

Asynchronous

- Dave's ESL Cafe:
  1) Student Discussion Forums, and 2) Teacher Discussion Forums

- Englishforums.com

- EnglishClub.com ESL Forums

- BBC Learning English - Communicate

- Nicenet.org
 

  •   Recap

- Remember what computers can do is to present information with multimedia and to provide predetermined feedback.

- There are four features that need to be considered for the CALL activities: accessibility, interactivity, renewability, and adaptability.

- Pedagogy first and technology second. Pedagogical Interactivity is more important than computer Interactivity.

  •   Issue 4: What knowledge/competence do language teachers need for CALL?

Content Knowledge + Electronic Literacy

Electronic literacy (Shetzer & Warschauer, 2000)
- Communication:
how to express and interpret meaning in the computer-mediated communication environment

- Construction:
how to write 1) from essay to hypertext, 2) from words to multimedia, and 3) from author to co-constructor

- Research:
how to navigate Web sources, search for information, and evaluate and interpret the found information

  •   Conclusion

- “What is the use of a book,” thought Alice, “without pictures or conversation?”
~ From Alice's Adventures In Wonderland (p.1)

- Technology is neither an unalloyed blessing nor an unmitigated curse.

- Computers don’t teach, but teachers do.

- Learners don’t learn from machines but from human beings.

 

References

Bax, S. (2003). CALL – past, present and future. System, 31, 13-28. Available: http://www.iateflcompsig.org.uk/media/callpresentpastandfuture.pdf

Beatty, K. (2003). Teaching and researching computer-assisted language learning. New York: Longman.

Chapelle, C. A. (2001). Computer applications in second language acquisition. New York: Cambridge.

Levy, M. (1997) CALL: Context and conceptualization. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Shetzer, H. & Warschauer, M. (2000). A electronic literacy approach to network-based language teaching. In M. Warschauer & R. Kern (Eds.), Network-based language teaching: Concepts and practice. New York: Cambridge.

 

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