- We need to think critically.
- We need to make wise decisions.
1) Is the computer a must in language learning and
2) What is computer assisted language learning (CALL)?
3) What can teachers and learners do in using computers
for language learning?
4) What knowledge or competence do language teachers
need for CALL?
Two fallacies (Bax, 2003)
1) "Omnipotence" fallacy
Computers can do everything and should replace current
learning and teaching technologies.
2) "Sole Agent" fallacy
The key or only factor in successful implementation of
the technology is the technology itself.
Network computer lab
Self-access learning center
- No, the computer is not a must, but it will
become “normalized” in everyday practice, like a
pen or a book (Bax,2003).
- Computer technology has to be treated as an aid,
but not a panacea.
- The effectiveness of CALL cannot reside in the
computer technology itself but in how it is put to
use and for what purposes.
- This term (Computer-assisted language learning - CALL)
is widely used to refer to the area of technology and
second language teaching and learning despite the fact
that revisions for the term are suggested regularly (Chapelle,
2001, p. 3).
- Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) may be
defined as the search for and study of applications of
the computer in language teaching and learning (Levy,
- Given the breadth of what may go on in
computer-assisted language learning (CALL), a definition
of CALL that accommodates its changing nature is any
process in which a learner uses a computer and, as a
result, improves his or her language (Beatty, 2003, p.
- CALL-specific software (CD-ROMs)
- Generic software (e.g., word-processors - Word,
presentation software - PowerPoint, and spreadsheet -
- Web-based learning materials
- Computer-mediated communication (CMC) programs
(synchronous: online chat; asynchronous: email and
- multiple-choice & true/false quizzes
- gap-filling exercise/cloze
- crossword puzzles
- games and simulations
- writing & word-processing
- web quests/searching
- web publishing
- Computer-mediated communication (synchronous and
CALL – Listening Skills
Randall's ESL Cyber Listening Lab
California Distance Learning
BBC Learning English: Watch
Voice of America - Special English
CALL – Speaking Skills
My English Tutor
Pronunciation (Okanagan University College, Canada)
Conversation Questions for the ESL
& EFL Classroom
Top 100 American speeches in the
- Reader’s theater (an example: “Many
CALL – Reading Skills
Read at Starfall
Phonics and Word Study
for K-12 and ESL Kids
ESL games in
Mother Goose Rebus Rhymes
SurLaLune Fairy Tales
The Online Books Page
(University of Pennsylvania)
English reading from
Repeat after Us - Online Library
and Language Lab
The Gold Scales of Tales, Poems
CALL – Writing Skills
ABC Letters, Writing, Words,
Numbers, Shapes, & Colors
Advice on Academic Writing
(University of Toronto)
- Purdue University's OWL (Online Writing Lab):
Grammar/Writing Resources, Handouts and Exercises for ESL Students
Grammar, Punctuation, and Spelling
Web-Quests - Thinking Skills
A WebQuest usually includes the following elements:
- An introduction or scenario
- A task that is meaningful and doable
- A process for completing the task
- Information resources to support the task
- A conclusion that brings closure and evaluation
WebQuests facilitate cooperative learning, offer
different kinds of resources, and provide a variety of
ways to access and demonstrate knowledge.
Dr. Alice Christie's Matrix of 320
WebQuest Resource Bank
A concordancer is a computer program that allows users
to search a collection of authentic texts (i.e. a
corpus) for multiple examples of selected words or
Users can use a concordancer to find examples of
authentic usage to demonstrate word collocations, word
usage, or even the structure of a text.
CANDLE Project -
TOTALrecall, VN Collocation (TANGO), and Collocation
VLC's Web Concordancer
ESL Cafe's Chat Central
Chat Room in Englishbaby.com
VLC Chat Rooms (Hong
- Dave's ESL Cafe:
Student Discussion Forums,
Teacher Discussion Forums
EnglishClub.com ESL Forums
BBC Learning English - Communicate
- Remember what computers can do is to present
information with multimedia and to provide predetermined
- There are four features that need to be considered for
the CALL activities: accessibility, interactivity,
renewability, and adaptability.
- Pedagogy first and technology second. Pedagogical
Interactivity is more important than computer
Content Knowledge + Electronic Literacy
Electronic literacy (Shetzer & Warschauer, 2000)
how to express and interpret meaning in the
computer-mediated communication environment
how to write 1) from essay to hypertext, 2) from words
to multimedia, and 3) from author to co-constructor
how to navigate Web sources, search for information, and
evaluate and interpret the found information
- “What is the use of a book,” thought Alice, “without
pictures or conversation?”
~ From Alice's Adventures In Wonderland (p.1)
- Technology is neither an unalloyed blessing nor an
- Computers don’t teach, but teachers do.
- Learners don’t learn from machines but from human
(2003). CALL – past, present and future. System, 31,
Beatty, K. (2003). Teaching and researching
computer-assisted language learning. New York:
Chapelle, C. A. (2001). Computer applications in
second language acquisition. New York: Cambridge.
Levy, M. (1997) CALL: Context and
conceptualization. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Shetzer, H. & Warschauer, M.
(2000). A electronic literacy approach to network-based
language teaching. In M. Warschauer & R. Kern (Eds.),
Network-based language teaching: Concepts and practice.
New York: Cambridge.