電腦輔助語言教學

Computer Assisted Language Learning and Teaching

Instructor: Chi-Fen Emily Chen  陳其芬

Department of English

National Kaohsiung First University of Science and Technology, Taiwan


Course Introduction

課程簡介

Course Contents

課程內容

Interactive Exercises

互動練習

Online Dictionaries

線上字典

Web Resources

網路資源

Student Blogs

學生網誌

Student Projects

學生作品

Discussion Forum

線上討論區

 

Unit 1.  Introduction to Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL)

   Please read

  1. Davies, G., Hewer, S., Rendall, H., & Walker, R. (2004). ICT4LT Module 1.4: Introduction to computer assisted language learning (CALL). http://www.ict4lt.org/en/en_mod1-4.htm

  2. Warschauer, M. (1996). Computer-assisted language learning: An introduction. http://www.gse.uci.edu/markw/call.html

 

1.1   What is CALL?

1.2   Types of CALL Programs 

1.3   Types of CALL Activities

1.4   What Computers Can and Can’t “Do”

1.5   Roles of the Computer in language learning and teaching

1.6   The Development of CALL

1.7   How Computers are used in the Language Class

1.8   Principles of Using CALL Programs in Language Learning and Teaching

 

1.1  What is CALL?

 

Definitions of CALL:

- Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) was the expression agreed upon at the 1983 TESOL convention in a meeting of all interested participants. This term is widely used to refer to the area of technology and second language teaching and learning despite the fact that revisions for the term are suggested regularly (Chapelle, 2001, p. 3).

- Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) may be defined as the search for and study of applications of the computer in language teaching and learning (Levy, 1997, p.1).

- Given the breadth of what may go on in computer-assisted language learning (CALL), a definition of CALL that accommodates its changing nature is any process in which a learner uses a computer and, as a result, improves his or her language (Beatty, 2003, p. 7).

- CALL has come to encompass issues of materials design, technologies, pedagogical theories and modes of instruction. Materials for CALL can include those which are purpose-made for language learning and those which adapt existing computer-based materials, video and other materials (Beatty, 2003, pp. 7-8).

1.2   Types of CALL Programs

 CALL programs/materials include (from ICT4LT Module 1.4)

- CALL-specific software: applications designed to develop and facilitate language learning, such as CD-ROMs, web-based interactive language learning exercises/quizzes (see CD-ROM examples for language learning)

- Generic software: applications designed for general purposes, such as word-processors (Word),  presentation software (PowerPoint, see an e-book made by students "Many Moons"), and spreadsheet (Excel), that can be used to support language learning (see examples of using Excel for language learning & teaching)  *Also see Microsoft Office Online Templates)

- Web-based learning programs: online dictionaries, online encyclopedias, online concordancers, news/magazine sites, e-texts, web-quests, web publishing, blog, wiki, etc.

- Computer-mediated communication (CMC) programs: synchronous - online chat; asynchronous - email, discussion forum, message board
 

 

1.3  Types of CALL Activities

 

-  multiple-choice & true/false quizzes

-  gap-filling exercise/cloze

-  matching

-  re-ordering/sequencing

-  crossword puzzles

-  games

-  simulations

 

-  writing & word-processing

-  concordancing 

-  web quests/searching

-  web publishing

-  online communication (synchronous and asynchronous)

 

 

1.4  What Computers Can and Can’t “Do” (based on Meskill, 2002, p. 122)

 

Computers CAN

Computer CAN’T

Judge predetermined right-or-wrong answers, e.g., multiple choice and fill-in-the-blanks

Judge unexpected input

Provide immediate, yet fixed, feedback, suggestions, and encouragement

Provide individualized feedback beyond a predetermined list of messages 

Provide authentic information through multimedia - texts, images, sounds, videos, and animations

Engage learner in rich negotiation of meaning characteristic of face-to-face interaction

Motivate task persistence

Record learner’s writing, speech, and learning progress

Motivate depth and quality of engagement characteristic of human interaction

 

      * Caveat:

- Computer technology has to be treated as an aid, but not a panacea.

- The effectiveness of CALL cannot reside in the technology itself but in how it is put to use and for what purposes.

 

 

1.5  Roles of the Computer in language learning and teaching:

- computer as tutor for language drills or skill practice

- computer as a tool for writing, presenting, and researching

- computer as a medium of global communication

 

1.6  The development of CALL – from the pedagogical perspective

 

I) Warschauer's Analysis (Kern & Warschauer, 2000; Warschauer, 1996; Warschauer, 2004)

(*Note: the three stages have not occurred in a rigid sequence. As each new stage has emerged, previous stages continue.)

  •   Structural / Behavioristic CALL (1960s -1970s)

View of Language: Structural (a formal structural system)

English Teaching Paradigm: Grammar-Translation & Audio-lingual

Principal Use of Computers: Drill and Practice

Principal Objective: Accuracy

Characteristics:

  1. Repeated exposure to the same material is believed to be beneficial or even essential to learning.

  2. A computer is ideal for carrying out repeated drills, since the machine i) does not get bored with presenting the same material and ii) it can provide immediate non-judgmental feedback.

  3. A computer is used as a tutor, presenting material and feedback on an individualized basis, allowing students to proceed at their own pace and freeing up class time for other activities.

  •   Communicative / Cognitive CALL (1980s -1990s)

View of Language: Cognitive (a mentally constructed system through interaction)

English Teaching Paradigm: Communicative Language Teaching

Principal Use of Computers: Communicative Exercises (to practice language use; non-drill format)

Principal Objective: Fluency

Characteristics:

  1. Grammar is taught implicitly rather than explicitly.

  2. Computers are used to stimulate discussion, writing or critical thinking. Students are encouraged to generate original utterances rather than just manipulate prefabricated language.

  3. The programs avoid telling students that they are wrong and are flexible to a variety of student responses.

  4. Computers are used as a tool (e.g., word processors, spelling and grammar checkers, and concordancers) and the target language is used exclusively.

  •   Integrative / Sociocognitive / Socioconstructive CALL (1990s -present)

View of Language: Sociocognitive (developed in social interaction through discourse communities)

English Teaching Paradigm: Content-based & ESP/EAP

Principal Use of Computers: Authentic Discourse (to perform real-life tasks)

Principal Objective: Agency (*definition: "the satisfying power to take meaningful action and see the results of our decisions and choices" Murray, 1997, p. 126)

Two types: Multimedia CALL (CD-ROMs) and Web-based CALL (on the Internet)

A) Multimedia CALL

Characteristics:

  1. They create a more authentic learning environment using different media.

  2. Language skills are easily integrated through multimedia.

  3. Students have a high degree of control over their learning through hypermedia.

  4. It facilitates a principle focus on the content without sacrificing a secondary focus on language form.

B) Web-based CALL

Characteristics:

  A) CMC –

  1. It provides authentic synchronous and asynchronous communication channels. Language learners can communicate directly, inexpensively, and conveniently with other learners or native speakers of the target language at any time and in any place.

  2. CMC can be carried out in several forms; it can be one-to-one, one-to-many, or many-to-one.

  B) The Web –

  1. Students can search through millions of files around the world within minutes to locate and access authentic materials exactly tailored to their own personal interests.

  2. Students can use the Web to publish their texts or multimedia materials to share with partner classes or with the general public.

* Question: Do you think Warschauer's analysis of the development of CALL is a good one?  Do you see any problems in his analysis?

[Read Bax's (2003) or see the quoted passage: Bax's criticism to Warschauer's analysis of the development of CALL]

 

II)  Bax's Analysis (2003)

 

 

Restricted CALL

Open CALL

Integrated CALL


Type of task

- Closed drills

- Quizzes

- Simulations

- Games

- CMC

- CMC

- Web-based programs

Type of student activity

- Text reconstruction

- Answering closed questions

- minimal interaction with other students

- Interacting with the computer

- Occasional interaction with other students

- Frequent interaction with other students

- Some interaction with computer through the lesson

Type of feedback

- Correct/incorrect

- Focus of linguistic skills development

- Open, flexible

- Interpreting, evaluating, commenting, stimulating thought

Teacher role

- Monitor

- Monitor / facilitator

- Facilitator / Manager

Position in curriculum

- Not integrated into syllabus - optional extra

- Technology precedes syllabus and learner needs

- Toy

- Not integrated into syllabus - optional extra

- Technology precedes syllabus and learner needs

- Tool for learning

- Normalized

- Integrated into syllabus, adapted to learners' needs

- Analysis of needs and context precedes decisions about technology

 

Position in lesson

- Whole CALL lesson

- Whole CALL lesson

- Smaller part of every lesson

Physical position of computer

- Separate computer lab

- Separate lab- perhaps devoted to language

- In every classroom


* Question: Do you think Bax's analysis of the development of CALL is a good one?  Do you see any problems in his analysis?

 

 

1.7  How Computers can be used in the Language Class

 

1) Teaching with one computer in the class

                - delivery of content (PowerPoint, word-processor, Webpages, etc.)

                - classroom activities/discussions mediated by the computer

                - Interactive whiteboard

 

2) Teaching in the computer network room (network-based language teaching)

                - task-based group work /activities

                - computer-mediated communication (CMC): asynchronous/synchronous

                - tandem learning

                              

3) Self-access learning (independent learning)

                - drills and exercises

                - word processing

                - resource searching

 

4) Distance learning (i.e. individual learners working by themselves, at a place and time of their choice and, to some extent, at a pace and in an order also chosen by themselves.)

                - delivering online course content

                - CMC activities: email, discussion forum, chat rooms

                - tandem learning

                - community building

 

1.8  Principles of Using and Designing CALL Programs in Language Learning and Teaching   

        - student/learner-centeredness (to promote learner autonomy)

        - meaningful purpose

        - comprehensive input

        - sufficient level of stimulation (cognitively and affectively)

        - multiple modalities (to support various learning styles and strategies)

        - high level of interaction (human-machine and human-human)

 

   

References:

 

Bax, S. (2003). CALL – past, present and future. System, 31, 13-28. Available:

Beatty, K. (2003). Teaching and researching computer-assisted language learning. New York: Longman.

Chapelle, C. A. (2001). Computer applications in second language acquisition. New York: Cambridge.

Kern, R., & Warschauer, M. (2000). Theory and practice of network-based language teaching. In M. Warschauer & R. Kern (Eds.), Network-based language teaching: Concepts and practice (pp. 1-19). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Kern, R., Ware, P., & Warschauer. M. (2004). Crossing frontiers: New directions in online pedagogy and research. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 24, 243-260.

Levy, M. (1997) CALL: Context and conceptualization. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Meskill, C. (2002). Teaching and learning in real time: Media, technologies, and language acquisition. Houston, TX: Athelstan.

Warschauer, M. (1996). Computer-assisted language learning: An introduction. In S. Fotos (Ed.), Multimedia language teaching (pp. 3-20). Tokyo: Logos International. Available: http://www.ict4lt.org/en/warschauer.htm

Warschauer, M., & Healey, D. (1998). Computers and language learning: An overview. Language Teaching, 31, 57-71. Available: http://www.gse.uci.edu/person/warschauer_m/overview.html

Warschauer, M., & Meskill, C. (2000). Technology and second language learning. In J. Rosenthal (Ed.), Handbook of undergraduate second language education (pp. 303-318). Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Warschauer, M. (2004). Technological change and the future of CALL. In S. Fotos & C. Brown (Eds.), New Perspectives on CALL for Second and Foreign Language Classrooms (pp. 15-25). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

 

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